On 1 February 2021, Myanmar’s military took control of the country in a coup. This page presents a consolidated source for all CLD’s resources on Myanmar since February 2021, as well as older resources. It will be updated regularly with new resources as they become available.
CLD has been working on Myanmar issues since 2012. Our work in Myanmar sought to support the democratisation process and involved a wide range of support on different freedom of expression and media law themes. Since the 2021 coup, the nature of our work has changed significantly. We continue to be engaged on freedom of expression issues in Myanmar through actions such as exposing how the legal changes introduced by the military regime undermine human rights and helping to promote longer-term democratic reform.
Analyses of Military Orders and Changes to Existing Laws
- Myanmar’s 2022 Police Force Law: English and Burmese. A English translation of the law is available here.
- Proposed 2022 New Draft Cyber Security Law: English and Burmese.
- Proposed 2021 Cyber Security Draft Law: English
- Note: This draft proposal was withdrawn. The military proposed a new draft cyber security law in 2022.
- Amendments to the Penal Code and Criminal Procedure Code
- Amendments to the Broadcasting Law: English and Burmese
Summaries: International Human Rights Standards
- Myanmar Press Council – Legitimacy Requires Independence: English and Burmese
- Right to Information Guide for Myanmar: English and Burmese
- Guide for Journalists on How to Document International Crimes: English and Burmese
- Outline of Rules Affecting Freedom of Expression (mapping document on democratic framework for freedom of expression): English and Burmese
Resources on Myanmar
These resources were developed prior to the 1 February coup but may still be relevant.
- Human Rights Analysis of Biometric Digital ID Systems, December 2020: English and Burmese
- Recent Legal Developments Impacting Freedom of Expression, November 2020: English and Burmese
- Joint Submission to the Universal Periodic Review of Myanmar, July 2020: English
- Note on the Draft Myanmar National Records and Archives Law, July 2019: English (this law was subsequently passed)
- Reforming Myanmar’s News Media Law and Printing and Publishing Enterprises Law, January 2019: English
- Digital Content Proposals (suggesting reforms to protect freedom of expression online), January 2018: English and Burmese
- Regulating Digital Content, December 2017 (providing a summary of key problematic Myanmar laws restricting freedom of expression online): English and Burmese
- Background Document: Guidance for the Myanmar Press Council, January 2017: English and Burmese
- Note on the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Myanmar Broadcasting Law, March 2016: English
- Charter of the Myanmar Right to Know Working Group, February 2016: English
- Note on Freedom of Expression and Regulation of the Media, July 2012: English and Burmese (accompanied by a one-page summary in English and Burmese)
Briefing Note Series: Freedom of Expression
This series, released in 2014, offers an overview of key international human rights standards governing freedom of expression. The Notes are designed to be accessible to all audiences, including those with no background in law. They focus on international standards and do not specifically discuss relevant Myanmar laws or policies, but are all available in both English and Burmese.
- Full Briefing Notes: English and Burmese
- Note 1 on Freedom of Expression as a Human Right: English and Burmese
- Note 2 on Restrictions on Freedom of Expression: English and Burmese
- Note 3 on the Right to Information: English and Burmese
- Note 4 on Independent Regulation of the Media: English and Burmese
- Note 5 on Regulation of Journalists: English and Burmese
- Note 6 on Print Media: English and Burmese
- Note 7 on Broadcast Regulation: English and Burmese
- Note 8 on Media Diversity: English and Burmese
- Note 9 on Public Service Broadcasting: English and Burmese
- Note 10 on Criminal Content Restrictions: English and Burmese
- Note 11 on Civil Content Restrictions: English and Burmese
- Note 12 on Digital Rights: English and Burmese